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Spiral Cultures

I have found the text of the translation I made of Dr Seiler's original article, Spiral, Lebensenergie und Matriarchat, for C O R E's unpublished journal and posted it on a page of its own here. Please see that page if you want to read the article in English.

Added 29. 7. 14. There is a discussion on the experience of feeling a tingle while listening to music on the BBC's website at the moment http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides/zx6sfg8 It is a good example of how far people can go astray scientifically, if they deny the existence and functions of the life energy and have to concoct spurious explanations for commonly experienced things known to most of us. See also C O R E's booklet Sensing the Orgone (text below) for more information.

 This is a new page based on the topic of one of C O R E's booklets of the same title and an article in German by Hanspeter Seiler, a Swiss scholar and researcher. The article by Seiler appears in Nach Reich, an anthology of articles in German by various writers and researchers. (Nach Reich, editors B Senf and J DeMeo, Zweitausendeins, Frankfurt am Main, 1997. http://www.berndsenf.de/pdf/emotion10Spiralform.pdf ) I am adding this page because it has occurred to me that this is a subject that might interest young researchers committed to orgonomy. (Yes, there are a few of you!) There is a very interesting project waiting to be realised by some enterprising researcher in the UK or Ireland, the recording of all the spiral carvings and motifs dotted about this country and Ireland. It would make an excellent research component of an MA or MSc in anthropology or cultural history or even a PhD.

The theory of Seiler's article is that there are (or, alas, used to be) certain cultures that use the motif of the spiral throughout their culture, both in their tattoos and bodily adornments and the decorations on everyday objects and tools such as canoes and houses and clothes. He thinks that this expresses a spontaneous capacity to feel the orgone moving within themselves and to see it in the sky.

I wrote a booklet summarising his theory and adding a few ideas of my own a few years ago and have posted the complete text of that below, so that interested students can read it and make their own minds up. I apologise in advance for the strange state of the references. The one.com software always does this to the text of booklets when I post them to one of our web-pages. Motivated readers will be able to find their way through them.

Spiral Cultures

Introduction – Spiral Cultures, Orgonomy, and Sex-Economy


This booklet is a brief attempt to describe the connections between the commonly occurring symbol of the spiral, seen in the art of many apparently different cultures, and social organisation and character structure. It is therefore a mixture of history, art history, psychology, sociology and sexology. The writing of this short essay has been inspired by my plans to visit the neolithic monument at Newgrange in the Irish republic. Before I went to see it I started reading round its history and interpretations of its meaning. I came across a small book published in 2001, which made the connection between this monument and the worship by early societies of the earth-goddess and the sun-god.[i] Though this book makes no particular reference to the spiral carvings on the stones at Newgrange I immediately saw a connection between them and James DeMeo’s comments on the soft, flowing art-forms of pre-patriarchal societies[ii] and the wider theory presented by Hanspeter Seiler in his essay on spiral cultures in the German orgonomic journal emotion.[iii]

An understanding of the explanation offered here demands a basic knowledge of the little known disciplines of orgonomy and sex-economy. These are almost completely unknown in Britain and Ireland, so some explanation of their basic principles and history is needed before we can proceed with our arguments. As far as I know there is no accepted explanation of the meaning or cultural significance of the use of the spiral motif in the art and craftwork of many early cultures. With a few important exceptions archaeologists do not seem to ascribe any importance to its use by a particular culture. Nor do they seek to interpret it in any way at all. As we shall see by the end of this essay, I hope, this is a crass omission that ignores a hugely important indicator in our understanding of early cultures.

I have borrowed the term spiral culture from an excellent essay on the subject by Hanspeter Seiler, originally published in the Berlin orgonomic journal Emotion. (http://www.berndsenf.de/pdf/emotion10Spiralform.pdf ) He describes a spiral culture as one in which an awareness of the movement of the cosmic orgone energy is part of everyday life and in which, therefore, the spiral motif appears in architecture, craft, and art.[iv] Such cultures are invariably life-affirming and positive towards sexuality in the adolescent. They have no adolescent sexual taboo. Such cultures protect and encourage adolescent sexuality.

            So…what are orgonomy and sex-economy? Both terms are the coinings of Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957), the Austro-American doctor and natural scientist. He started his highly creative and fertile work-life as a doctor and psycho-analyst and was at one time a favoured young disciple of Freud’s. At a time when Freud’s disciples were abandoning the concept of libido as fast as they could Reich latched onto it as an important concept in his understanding of the causes of neurosis and emotional distress.[v] To most other workers it was never more than a metaphor. To Reich it was something real and, he hoped, something that he would make tangible, possibly even measurable. While most psycho-analysts were interested only in what their patients said, the actual content of their therapeutic confessions, Reich was more interested in how his patients spoke and behaved, the level of excitation they showed as they spoke, how this varied, and in particular how the excitation appeared or disappeared suddenly. He soon broke away from Freud’s rigid practices, firstly focusing verbally on the mode of expression of his patients as much as on the content of what they said. This helped to break down the resistances that all patients showed to the process of analysis. As he focused more and more on these resistances he realised that they were not just mental concepts: they were actually embodied in the way his patients spoke, breathed, moved and generally held themselves.[vi]

            Taking a great risk (at that time, when touching patients was unheard of), he started to work physically with the breathing patterns of his patients and attempted actively to help them let go of chronic muscular tensions (armouring, as he called it) by manipulation, massage and attempting to remobilise various natural movements, in particular the natural breathing reflex.[vii] As these methods became more and more effective his patients frequently reported sensations of something moving within their bodies. These were commonly described as currents or streamings.[viii] The more a patient was able to let go of their armouring the stronger these sensations were. As this therapeutic process unfolded most patients became able to experience a much higher level of sexual excitation and the release of the muscular armouring permitted a much higher capacity to surrender to the spontaneous movements of the orgasm. Reich concluded that the sexual orgasm was nature’s mechanism for the regulation and discharge of surplus libido or bio-energy, as he called it at this stage,[ix] although he was not certain yet by any means exactly what this something was that patients described. He already had a picture of the organism creating energy all the time and needing to discharge it. This cycle and function he referred to as the organism’s energyeconomy. The political and social belief that the conduct of the energy economy was important for social and personal well-being and should be protected by the advocacy and protection of adolescent sexuality and the acceptance of infant’s primary needs he named sex-economy. The conclusions that he drew from his clinical work found support from the anthropological findings of Malinowski, published in his classic work The Sexual Life of Savages.[x] They are further supported by the evidence collected by Verrier Elwin in his book The Muria and their Ghotul.[xi] Though this was first published during Reich’s lifetime he does not appear to have been aware of it. The pictures in this book make it clear that the Muria’s culture was a spiral culture.

He used the term sex-economy in the years when he had already formulated the orgasm formula of mechanical tension → bio-energetic charge → bio-energetic discharge → mechanical relaxation, but before he had actually discovered the orgone energy. The term is not used much nowadays, even by orgonomists, though James DeMeo uses the term quite precisely when referring to the psycho-dynamics of aggression and character structure in his great work on the origins of armouring – Saharasia.[xii]

            As Reich developed his understanding of energy functions in the human organism he wondered whether the processes that he was observing – expansion and pleasure, contraction and anxiety – were basic natural processes that could be observed in nature at large and not just within human beings.[xiii] He always had a strong feeling for natural processes and took humankind to be a part of nature like any other animal species. He went from the complex to the simple, from homosapiens to the humble amoeba. He found, as we would expect, that the process of expansion and contraction could indeed be observed in the amoeba. He was sceptical towards the conventional explanation for the origin of the amoebae in laboratory cultures. He found that they originated not from spores attached to the grass but from a process of disintegration of the dead tissue into tiny highly charged energy vesicles with some of the characteristics of life.[xiv] He named these vesicles bions. They had a tendency to clump together in the form of simple organisms, protozoa. He researched further to see if the bions came into being from inanimate materials and found that they did come into existence from things such as sand, soil, ground minerals, and so on.[xv] In fact most materials that can be finely ground and made to swell by the addition of water or a nutritive solution will produce bions. While working with a preparation made from sea-sand Reich discovered that the test-tube containing the preparation caused symptoms similar to sunburn when held close enough to the skin. He was able to feel a tingling, similar to the sensations described by his patients in his therapy. He had at last come across the libido of his early psycho-analytic days. While trying to construct an environment that excluded this energy, so that he could conduct experiments with it, he found that he had inadvertently constructed an accumulator that concentrated the energy, which turned out to be everywhere. It was the life-force, the bio-energy, what other cultures had assumed existed for centuries and given such names as prana or chi.[xvi]

            These pioneering observations were all made in Norway in the later nineteen thirties, when Reich was living there in exile from Nazi Germany and Austria. He moved to the United States just before war broke out and soon resumed his observations. He was able to observe this energy, now named orgone by him, moving rapidly and energetically in the atmosphere in the form of spinning waves. He was also able to observe the wave motion of the atmospheric orgone stream that flows round our planet.[xvii] Most people can see these orgone dots whirling and pulsating in suitable conditions, if they can allow themselves the privilege. This whirling spiral motion is the primary form of motion of the atmospheric orgone energy. The spirals can be seen more easily in an orgone dark-room. This is a large orgone accumulator, large enough to allow several people to sit inside it to observe the atmospheric orgone energy. Observers need to sit in the dark for about half an hour to make sure that all visual excitation brought about by the outside daylight has subsided.* 


The Spiral in Early Art, Crafts, and Architecture


No-one disputes the fact that the spiral is a significant motif in early art, craft and architecture. It gets many mentions in history books and reference works, though interpretations of its importance are usually very general and bland. As far as I know, apart from contemporary orgonomic writers, no-one makes any clear-cut and prognostic explanations for its significance. Put simply the orgonomic understanding of the spiral connects it with the absence of armouring within a particular culture, the awareness amongst its members of the atmospheric orgone energy and their capacity to feel its movement within their own bodies and to see it moving in the atmosphere.

Two present-day orgonomic researchers, James DeMeo and Hanspeter Seiler, both still working and writing, interpret the use of the spiral symbol in art as a sign that the members of that culture are capable of feeling their own orgone energy in movement within their bodies and of seeing it in the atmosphere. As far as I know, they are the first to make these connections between the common use of the spiral and bodily sensations of the orgone in motion. The use of the spiral as a common artistic symbol is always found in the art of matriarchal, soft cultures with highly positive attitudes towards sexuality, especially the sexuality of adolescents and children. Seiler in his essay on this, which first appeared in the German orgonomic journal Emotion, retells a very significant anecdote about a Maori who had visited England in the eighteenth century. He became quite famous and had his portrait painted. This was a conventional society portrait. However, the Maori was aghast when he saw it as the artist had not portrayed any of the spirals which he felt were an important part of his sense of self, as he felt their presence all the time.[xviii] (Maoris used to paint spirals on themselves.) The connection between the use of the spiral motif and life-affirming cultural attitudes is carefully researched and argued by these two writers and is, in my opinion, proved beyond doubt. Much evidence collected by workers with no knowledge of the spiral’s significance or its connection with the movement of bio-energy within the body confirms their arguments.

When I first read Seiler’s and DeMeo’s work on art and armouring and the spiral I did not imagine that I would find myself falling over such expressions on our own doorsteps here in Britain and Ireland. I associated them with the Trobriand Islanders and their canoes, as described in detail by Seiler, and the early Mediterranean cultures cited by DeMeo, for example the Minnoan culture on Crete. However I came across a beautiful photograph of spirals on large stones from the Newgrange site in a history of astronomy.

            Newgrange is one of the earliest surviving monuments from early matriarchal cultures in northern Europe. If DeMeo’s and Seiler’s theories are correct, then we can assume the use of the spiral motif is a sign that the builders of Newgrange were members of a life-affirming, sex-positive culture who took the presence and movement of life energy for granted. Therefore an interpretation of the Newgrange monument that connects it with fertility and sexuality, as does that of Chris O’Callaghan in his book NewgrangeTemple to Life, is surely correct. The great archaeologist of matriarchy, the late Marija Gimbutas, confirms this interpretation. In the section on the spiral in The Language of the Goddess she comments concerning the use of the spiral on European pottery of the fifth century BC;


…vigorous spirals move rhythmically round the neck and shoulders or float in a free field style brimming with vitality. The energy inherent in the continually moving forms awakens dormant life power and moves it forward.[xix] (Italics added.)


And further, on temple megaliths in Malta of 3000BC;


The life force inherent in the spiral is made manifest by leaves sprouting from its outer ring and its transformation into a growing plant.[xx] (Italics added.)


            The conventional explanation for Newgrange is that it is a ‘passage tomb’.[xxi] Apparently it was explained thus before it was even excavated and the form and function of the long interior passageway was even known about. The rising sun for a few days on either side of the midwinter solstice enters this long passage and reaches right into the interior chamber. O’Callaghan sees this, surely correctly, as a symbolic penetration and fertilising of mother earth by the sungod that all early, pre-patriarchal cultures worshipped. Common sense suggests very strongly that a life-affirming symbol such as the spiral is far more likely to be found on a temple to life than it would be on a grave.

            Again, to my great surprise while on a short holiday in Galloway, Scotland, I discovered that there are many ancient stones dotted about the countryside there that also have circles carved into them. I think we can reasonably say that circles in art are similar to spirals as far as the psychological origin of them goes. Again no-one appears to have taken these circles seriously and it is difficult to find information about them, apart from the simple fact that they exist. A collection of these as a book would be an interesting project for an orgonomic researcher interested in this field. When I made enquiries about these circle carvings at the local museum in Stranraer I was told that there were no publications on them and that if I wanted further pictures I would have to go and photograph them myself. Although rather frustrating, this is not a very different situation to that in which every orgonomic researcher finds himself or herself before very long. We often follow an apparently fruitful research pathway only to find that it is completely neglected by conventional science and if we are to make any progress in our quest we simply have to do the experiments, find out the facts, and record the information gleaned for ourselves.

            Another motif that Seiler considers an expression of orgonotic awareness is the stippling patterns seen in the Minnoan temples on Crete.[xxii] These are carved into the stone as a randomly moving pattern of dots.  This is the appearance of the orgone spirals in the sky when they are moving directly towards or away from the observer. Reich himself draws a sketch of this version of the orgone in the atmosphere along with the typical spinning-wave form seen as the orgone moves across our field of view. I think we can also conclude that this stippling pattern is an artistic representation of the tingling sensations that orgone energy in movement produces. This stippling pattern occurs on many of the carved orthostats seen at Newgrange, often alongside carved spirals.[xxiii]


Orgonotic Pulsation and Muscular Armouring


            We have already come across the orgasm formula above – mechanical tension → bio-energetic charge → bio-energetic discharge → mechanical relaxation. It is important to appreciate the significance of pulsation in orgonomy to see fully the connections between the use of the spiral in any culture’s art. Reich soon realised that the charge → discharge function of the orgasm was a function common to all living nature, not just human or even mammalian sexuality. He therefore called it the life formula and saw it as the function common to all living organisms and their organs.[xxiv] If the awareness of the movement of the bodily orgone energy is not inhibited by muscular armouring in a given culture we can assume that generally the people of this culture will have undisturbed orgastic function and therefore no hostility to this movement either within themselves or outside themselves in nature and the cosmos at large. Even in our own culture with its strong taboo against acknowledging the existence of the life energy many small children are able to sense the orgone energy inside themselves and especially outside themselves in the sky. Moderately armoured adults who are not too prejudiced against the idea can be helped to see the orgonotic spinning waves cavorting about the sky without too much difficulty and to feel their own orgone energy moving within them. This is done fairly simply by helping them to remobilise their breathing.[xxv] This raises their energy level and increases its movement so they feel it, even if only temporarily.

            The fact that we can help someone to sense their own orgone energy in motion and to see it moving in the atmosphere confirms Reich’s emphasis on the importance of organ sensation as a tool in orgonomic research.[xxvi] If a researcher does not ever feel their own orgone energy in motion or see the orgone moving in the atmosphere, they are not going to even think of this orgonomic interpretation of the meaning of the spiral in early art. The whole idea that the spiral has such a meaning will appear quite preposterous to such a researcher. We can see this inability to make any connections between the spiral and sexuality in the reams of comment on the spiral carvings on the Newgrange stones. The only person to connect the Newgrange monument with sexuality and fertility, as far as I know, is Chris O’Callaghan in the work cited above on page 5.

            If the spiral is such an obvious part of the visual surroundings to all the individuals in a culture it is no surprise that it appears in their art and decorative work on buildings and implements. It is also no surprise that in very armoured cultures the spiral and its derivatives do not appear at all. We cannot imagine a spiral pattern of any sort appearing in Nazi or fascist art.[xxvii]  The art and architecture of such rigid, authoritarian cultures is avowedly rigid, hard, and obsessed with images of mechanical power. In such cultures, as in early Soviet culture, hardness and insensitivity are praised as desirable qualities in the new German or Italian or Soviet man.[xxviii]

The Specific Orgonomic Significance of the Spiral

Orgonomy can provide further evidence for the life-affirming explanation of the spiral, once we realise the significance of pulsation in the life process. The spiral can be repeated or combined with other spirals running in opposite directions to express the function of expansion and contraction and even rhythmic repetition of these, that is pulsation. This comes over very clearly in the illustrations in Seiler’s essay and also in many of the illustrations in Gimbutas’s book on matriarchal art.[xxix]

For instance spiral motifs linked together give us a pictorial version of pulsation, which we can, of course, see throughout the human body. Even modern electronic monitoring equipment produces a similar, though rather lifeless, rhythmic pattern of pulsation. These patterns of repeated spirals also resemble patterns of wave movement observed in moving water. The Trobrianders clearly sensed the common functioning principle of the atmospheric energy spirals, bodily pulsation, and waves in water. It is surely no coincidence that they painted the repeated spiral motif and its resulting wave pattern on their sea-going canoes. (See Seiler’s essay, already cited, for examples and more information.)

            This is a cultural confirmation of Reich’s formulation of the common functioning principle. The application of this principle is the foundation of orgonomic science and Reich was unwittingly applying it long before he formulated it formally in writing. According to this principle we see pairs of energy functions, such as expansion and contraction, charge and discharge, excitation and lumination, in many different spheres, even different sciences, that western science normally sees as quite separate and unconnected.[xxx] Thus, for example, high-pressure weather with its invigorating blue skies and bracing freshness and an inner emotional sense of vitality and happiness shares the common functioning principle of expansion and excitation of orgone energy. Specialists in psychology and meteorology would ridicule such a ‘folk’ comparison, though most ordinary people with no vested interest in the rules of science are quite happy to see and feel the connection. Such weather is often described as sparkling or bracing or alive.


Observing the Atmospheric Orgone Energy


Although this is a special part of orgonomic science it is not too difficult and does not require a great deal of expensive equipment. Some readers may be interested enough to try and do this, if only to test my claims. For a more detailed essay on this subject, please see C O R E’s booklet Observing the Atmospheric Orgone Energy.[xxxi]

All we need to observe the orgone spirals moving in the air is the right atmospheric conditions, stable high-pressure weather and a suitable physical background. The best background to enable us to see the spirals seems to be any fairly even, light-coloured matt surface with no disrupting decorations, furniture, or motifs attached. If you know little about meteorology, high-pressure weather means blue skies, sun, lots of white clouds high in the sky. We can have this in the depths of winter with really low temperature or in much warmer weather, too. It does not necessarily mean warm weather. In such highly charged conditions we can see the whirling spinning waves of the orgone in the atmosphere with the naked eye. Look up into the sky without focusing on anything specific and let your eyes relax. Before too long you should start to see tiny silvery dots whirling in spiral movements in all directions across the sky. You may also notice whizzing dots apparently coming straight at you. This is what the whirling spirals look like head-on.

 We can magnify the spirals with a pair of binoculars or a suitable telescope. The viewing instrument needs to be quite stable, preferably on a tripod, so that we can be sure that any movement we observe is genuine and not movement of the optical apparatus that we are using. A suitable telescope would be a so-called spotting ‘scope, as used by bird-watchers or a refractor telescope, as used by amateur astronomers. To be effective a pair of binoculars needs to have a magnification of at least x20 and preferably more. Such binoculars are not very commonly used as they are only usable with a tripod and are not therefore very convenient for everyday use. If you are thinking of borrowing a pair, try asking someone you know who is interested in astronomy. They may well have a pair of such observation binoculars and a tripod to mount them on.

Set up your borrowed pair of binoculars where you have a good view to the horizon, ideally looking south or north. To get the best out of this exercise you should be able to see a distance of a few miles to the horizon and you will glean even more information about the atmospheric orgone energy if there is a flat horizon or some artificial horizontal surface to observe. If you look carefully at a straight surface about a mile away you will probably see a ripple moving along it. Check the bearing of your line of sight with a compass so that you can be fairly sure of the bearing of the wave-motion that you can see along the surface. If you can, try and find some indicators of the current wind-direction. This is not difficult to do: once you get used to making these atmospheric observations you soon find ways of checking the wind-direction, that is, assuming you have not got the proper meteorological equipment for this. Common indicators are smoke from garden fires, flags, washing on lines, clouds at low altitude, and so on. As usual with orgonomic research, ingenuity will in the end provide an answer.

You will probably find that the ripple along the flat surface reflects the direction of the wind. Sceptics will leap at this and say, yes, it’s just movement of the atmosphere brought about by the wind. However, we can observe a very strong ripple in a west to east direction when atmospheric conditions are at their stillest, typically in winter in very cold, arctic conditions, temperatures often below freezing, strong sunlight, very still air with all the indicators cited above showing no atmospheric movement at all. This is the wave-motion of the planetary orgone energy envelope first observed and described by Reich in the nineteen forties.[xxxii] If we are lucky enough to be able to observe the ripple in the dark along a fluorescent lighting tube we will see that it is strong and easily observed in these very still conditions. (There are several such tubes in a large warehouse loading-bay visible from C O R E’s fourth floor improvised observatory.) Distant lights in these conditions at night show a pronounced and vigorous twinkle. If your view allows you to see a wide range of lights at different distances away from you, you will find that the distance at which you can first see the twinkle varies greatly. In these high-pressure, still conditions with a strong ripple during daylight we will see a twinkle much nearer than we do in dull, low-pressure conditions. Sometimes in these conditions, when the atmospheric energy charge is very low there is no twinkle at all, however far away we look.

There is much more to observing the atmospheric orgone energy and this is a very brief introduction to the subject for readers new to the topic. C O R E’s booklet on the subject gives more detailed information and much more information on suitable optical instruments for viewing the orgone.


Sensing Your Own Orgone Energy in Motion


            If you are able to feel a tingle when you listen to some favourite music or when your partner caresses your back or simply when you experience something beautiful or moving, then you are feeling your own orgone energy in motion. In an orgone therapy session, if you are not heavily armoured, you will be able to feel your own energy moving more consistently and easily and possibly for a longer period. C O R E runs occasional day and weekend workshops in orgone therapy and one of these should give you a chance to feel this movement, though of course we cannot guarantee it. Our booklet, Sensing the Orgone, contains advice on how to help yourself feel this motion and some simple exercises.


Recording Spiral Carvings in the UK and Ireland


As I soon discovered from my own research, there do not seem to be any collections of records of spiral motifs in the many neolithic monuments on these islands. It would therefore be a useful and interesting research project for students of orgonomy with an interest in history or religion or ancient cultures to travel round these monuments and record photographically examples of spiral motifs or related forms on any of these monuments. This would be a relatively easy and inexpensive project for a young student, as long as he or she was old enough to drive themselves round the many sites. It demands only basic photographic skills and the possession of a camera of reasonable quality. This would cost much less than the expensive optical equipment needed for much basic orgonomic scientific research. If you are interested in doing this work, please get in touch with C O R E for information on the whereabouts of these sites. We are compiling a reference list of any sites that we hear about or know about where there are spiral motifs.


PS March 2008. Since writing the first version of this booklet I have come across two books on the rock-carvings of southern Scotland – The Prehistoric Rock Art of Argyll and The Prehistoric Rock Art of Galloway and the Isle of Man by Ronald W B Morris, 1977 and 1979 respectively, published by Blandford Press. They are only geographical surveys and make no attempt at cultural interpretation. They will, however, show an interested student where to go.   


This short essay leans heavily on information contained in Saharasia by James DeMeo (OBRL, Ashland, Oregon, 2007), Spiralform, Lebensenergie und Matriarchat by Hanspeter Seiler, (emotion, No 10, Berlin, 1992, pages 137-167, also reprinted in Nach Reich, Zweitausendeins, Frankfurt, 1997), and Newgrange Temple to Life by Chris O’Callaghan, (Mercier Press, Cork, 2004). I am grateful to these writers for their pioneering work and observations, which have helped me to make the connections outlined in this essay.




* There is an orgone darkroom at OBRL in Oregon and Reich’s original orgone room still exists at Orgonon in Maine. There is no orgone darkroom in the UK at present. C O R E hopes to build one when funds and facilities allow.


[i] O’Callaghan C (2004) Newgrange: Temple to Life, Mercier Press, Cork.


[ii] DeMeo J (2007); Saharasia, OBRL, Ashland, Oregon.


[iii] Seiler H (2002); Spiralform, Matriarchat und Lebensenergie, in NachReich,  Zweitausendeins, Frankfurt.


[iv] ibid.


[v] Reich W (1983); The Function of the Orgasm, page 124, Souvenir Press, London.


[vi] ibid; chapter V, The Development of the Character Analytic Technique.


[vii] ibid; chapter VIII, 2, Abdominal Tension.


[viii] ibid; page 271.


[ix] ibid; chapter VII, 5, The Orgasm Formula: Tension → Charge → Discharge → Relaxation.


[x] Malinowski B (1963); The Sexual Life of Savages, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.


[xi] Elwin V (1947); The Muria and Their Ghotul, Oxford University Press, Oxford.


[xii] DeMeo (2007); op cit, passim.


[xiii] Reich W (1979); The Bion Experiments on the Origin of Life, chapter 1, The Tension-Charge Formula, FS&G.


[xiv] ibid; chapter 2, Bions as the Preliminary Stages of Life.

[xv] Reich W (1979); The Bion Experiments on the Origin of Life, FS&G, New York.


[xvi] Reich W (1973); The Cancer Biopathy, chapter III, The Actual Discovery of Orgone Energy.


[xvii] Reich W (1973a); Ether, God and Devil, chapter VI, Cosmic Orgone Energy and “Ether”, 2, Movement, FS&G.


[xviii] Seiler H (2002); op cit.


[xix] Gimbutas M (2001); The Language of the Goddess, page 279, Thames and Hudson, London.


[xx] ibid; page 283.


[xxi] Bray W, Trump D (1982); The Penguin Dictionary of Archaeology, page 172, Newgrange, Penguin Books, London.


[xxii] Seiler; op cit.


[xxiii] O’Kelly C (1982); Corpus of Newgrange Art, in O’Kelly M J (1982); Newgrange: Archaeology, Art and Legend, Thames and Hudson, London.


[xxiv] Reich W (1973); The Cancer Biopathy, page 228, Vision Press, London.


[xxv] Reich W (1983); op cit, chapter VIII, 4, The Establishment of Natural Respiration, Souvenir Press, London.


[xxvi] Reich W (1973a); chapter III, Organ Sensation as a Tool of Natural Research, FS&G.


[xxvii] Wulf J (1983); Die bildenden Künste im Dritten Reich, Ullstein, Franfurt and Berlin.


[xxviii] Brown M C, Taylor B, eds (1993); Art of the Soviets: painting, sculpture and  architecture in a one-party state, Manchester University Press, Manchester.


[xxix] Gimbutas M; op cit.


[xxx] Reich W (1973a); op cit, pages 99-120, FS&G.


[xxxi] Jones P (2004); Observing the Atmospheric Orgone Energy, C O R E, Preston.


[xxxii] Reich W (1973a); op cit, pages 146-151, FS&G.


FS&G = Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York.

Posted October 13th, 2012, last revised November 13th, 2019.

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